Spanish Civil War vessels
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Author:  eswube [ November 15th, 2020, 10:13 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Excellent additions!

Author:  reytuerto [ November 17th, 2020, 5:12 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Thanks Char & Eswube for your positive feebback!

In 1930 CAMPSA´s expansion plan, a rather small oil tanker was thought having in mind the city and harbour of Seville. So the vessel must be of limited length for being able to handle the curves of the river Guadalquivir and an equally limited draught. The resulting ship was Campilo a 4,700 tons, with twin B&W 4 stroke diesel engines, and capable of 13 knots in light condition. A modern oiler made in Union Naval de Levante at Valencia, but the engines were made at Barcelona (the first Spanish made maritime diesel engines). Campilo was comissioned in 1934.
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But in civilian colors the life of Campilo was short, the same year, the Spanish Navy bought the vessel for being the first fleet oiler, keeping the old name. CAMPSA ordered another tanker of identical charachteristics, but this vessel only was delivered after the end of the war.

During the SCW, Campilo flown the colors of the republic, and was under direct control of the Naval Headquarter at Barcelona instead being with the other naval units at Cartagena. In July 1937 she was shelled by the cruiser Canarias at Barcelona and damaged. Campilo was the last ship fleeing from Cartagena in March 29th 1939 with 430 refugees that went to France in that last sortie.

After the end of the SCW the nationalist found the ship in bad condition, and after several months she was commissioned once again, later she was renamed Pluton in May 1940. Pluton and the more modern Teide were the fleet tankers for almost 30 years, being paid off in 1970.

Credits: I had the inestimable aid of Colombamike since the very beginning of this drawing. Thanks! Cheers.

Author:  reytuerto [ November 18th, 2020, 2:29 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Good evening, guys:

Sota y Aznar was the main shipping company in Spain. This Basque company tried to import oil and derivatives and begun talks with the Dutch Shell company and ordered an oil tanker to the also Basque shipyard Euskalduna. But two facts were against Sota y Aznar: the talks with Shell were fruitless; and in 1927 CAMPSA, a monopoly of all the oil trade in Spain, was created. This means that the oil buisness was killed before born, and Sota y Aznat sold the sole oil tanker of the fleet: Artza Mendi.

Artza Mendi was a steam tanker of Sir Joseph Isherwood license. A 114 meters long and 4600 tons vessel, equipped with a single triple expantion steam engine and three boilers the ship was capable of 10.5 knots. She was the first oil tanker built in Spain, in 1921 at a cost of 8,100,000 pesetas, but was sold at a bargain cost of only 2,100,000 (more than 65,000 pounds) to CAMPSA in 1927 and renamed Zorroza.
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During the SCW Zorroza was mainly at the Mediterranean Sea, In March 1937 she was torpedoed by the nationalist submarine General Sanjurjo (qv), and survived two torpedo impacts but was able to reach damaged Barcelona. After being repaired in that harbour, in July 1937 she was part of a small convoy of two oilers and one cargo vessel and were sailing close to the French coast of the Gulf of Lyon. Once again the submarine Genaral Sanjurjo found the convoy and begun to shell them (she had expended her load of torpedoes). The cargo ship, Andutz Mendi was heavily shelled but managed to return to Barcelona, as Zorroza and the other tanker did.

After the war Zorroza continued with CAMPSA until being paid off in 1965.

Arnus was a ship ordered by Compañia de Tabacos de Filipinas and designed for the trade of coconut oil. She was built by Swan, Hunter and Wigham Richardson, Ltd in 1922; a 111 meters long and 6500 tons vessel, equipped with twin Neptune diesel engines. In 1928 she was bought by CAMPSA (together with 2 other coconut oil tankers) and renamed Badalona.

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In July 1936 she was sailing from Tenerife to Coruña, so she was the only oil tanker in rebel hands at the beginning of the SCW. During the very critical first months of the war was the replenisher oiler of the backbone of the nationalist fleet, the battleship España, the cruisers Canarias and Cervera and the destroyer Velasco. But when sailing alone to the Canary Islands (the main spanish oil refinery was in Tenerife) as a measure of protection, she sailed under german flag with the false name of Sirius.

Badalona survived the Civil War, but had a sad end: in December 1941 she was torpedoed and sunk by the german U-453 submarine (Lt. Egon Reiner von Schlippenbach), off Motril, with 3 KIA, despite the huge neutrality flags painted in the hull.

Credits: In both drawings I had the enormous help of Colombamike, since the inception. Thanks and cheers.

Author:  reytuerto [ November 19th, 2020, 4:11 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Good evening!

After the creation of the spanish oil monopoly, CAMPSA, only one high seas oil tanker remained in hands of other shipping company, and this vessel was ST Gobeo.

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A trunk hull type ship, Gobeo was owned by Compañia Cantabrica de Navegacion, she was built in 1921 by Duncan & Co, a shipyard from Glasgow. With 100 meters long and 4,900 tons she was equipped with a single triple expansion steam engine with 2 boilers, and was capable of 10 knots under ideal conditions (unloaded, clean bottoms and fair weather). Originally built as a dry cargo ship, she was modified as oil tanker with riveted internal tanks, being effectively a double hulled ship. Her cost was of 220,000 pounds. Capable of a liquid load of 5400 tons, the accommodation was bad for the officers, but worse for the crew in the forecastle and for the engine personel living in the stern.

During the Spanish Civil War, as most of the vessels registered in a northen harbour, she was in the republican side. In August 1936 she was able to rescue the remaining oil of the shelled by the francoist destroyer Velasco (qv) Santurce´s depots. After this, she made several trips to the Netherlands, and at least one to Great Britain, from several Spanish harbours of the Bay of Biscay, mainly Bilbao. Gobeo was in this Basque port when Bilbao was surrounded by francoist troops, and was trying to escape with refugees, in June 16th 1937 when she was captured (together with 3 other vessels) by the nationalist armed trawler Galerna (qv).

In rebel hands, Gobeo used to sail from the Canary islands to several harbours of the nationalist territory. But sometimes acted as a replenishment vessel, at least once in September 1937, giving 1100 tons of fuel to the 6 inch gun cruiser Cervera. After the end of the war she was hand over to the original owner. Finally, Gobeo was paid off in 1964 and scrapped.

Credits: This drawing was difficult because the geometry of the hull was/is complicated and also because the almost complete lack of good visual references. Since the inception, Colombamike helped me heavily, with very useful comments. Lot of thanks. Cheers.

Author:  Novice [ November 19th, 2020, 8:30 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Amazing work.
All these ships and I suppose more will appear :)

Author:  reytuerto [ November 20th, 2020, 12:15 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Oh, Thanks Novice! Your feedback is very important to me!

Yes, I have more: a couple of oilers (but little ones), and then a magnificent looking (in the black and white photographs) liner.

Here is the first oil tanker: Part of 1930 CAMPSA´s expansion plan, the twins Camprodon and Campalans were little oilers for bunkering in the harbours of Valencia and Barcelona.

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They were trunk hull type vessels, with the main deck almost at sea level when fully loaded, but equipped with modern pumps able to move 600 tons of fuel per hour.

During the SCW, Camprodon was hit by aviations bombs and sunk, and Campalans captured with the fall of the Republic. Both vessels were in use after the end of the war and had long lives: in fact, Campalans was only paid off and scrapped in 1984.

Credits: Colombamike helped me since the very beginning (a very detailed a big line drawing), and useful comments of a challenging vessel (little drawing are difficult ones!). Thanks a lot. Cheers.

Author:  eswube [ November 20th, 2020, 3:36 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

That series of tankers is really amazing. Keep up the truly excellent work!

Author:  reytuerto [ November 21st, 2020, 9:55 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Thanks, Eswube for your important input!

Now, an anonymous little oil tanker, without a relevant life before, during and after the Spanish Civil War, but with an interesting history about the oil buisness in Spain since the second half of the XIX century: El León.

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Between 1935 and 1931, the Rothschild Family built an economic empire in Spain, with diverse business from mining to railroads, and from banking to the most importants oil refineries in the country in the XIX century, with the subsidiary Deutsch et Cie.

Deutsch et Cie. was a company established in 1879 between the Rothschilds and Deutsch de La Meurthe with the object of refining and selling the oil from the oilfields from the formers in the Caucasus; in that years the main oil product was kerosene for lamps. In 1890, Deutsch et Cie had 5 refining plants in Spain, producing nearly 100 million liters of kerosene.

In April 1926 Deutsch et Cie oredered to the Corcho Shipyard at San Martin, in Santander a little oil tanker. which was completed in August and named El Leon. This was a barge like vessel of only 38 meters long and a displacement of 600 tons. Equipped with a single Deutz diesel engine and single screw, had a modest speed of 7 knots. But the next year, CAMPSA was created, and the very first ship bought was precisely, El Leon, at a cost of 700,000 pesetas, in July 1928. Almost all her life was in Barcelona, as a bunkering vessel. She was paid off in 1965.

Credits: Colombamike helped me, with a wonderful and detailed line drawing and useful corrections. Thanks a lot. Cheers.

Author:  reytuerto [ December 1st, 2020, 5:11 am ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Good evening, guys:

In 1923, Alfonso XIII (2nd), the biggest ocean liner of the oldest Spanish shipping company, the Compañia Trasoceanica (aka "the Spanish line") was paid off. This left the Trasoceanica with any two funneled ship, an injury (and in that days, not a lesser one) to the prestige of the company. So the keel of 3 ocean liners were laid down in 3 different slips of the SECN shipyard: Elcano at Bilbao, Magallanes at Cadiz and Comillas at Ferrol, 3 vessels that were almost identical despite being built in different factories, and were called collectively "the 3 Comillas", and by November 1928, the 3 ships were commissioned.
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The Comillas were nice looking vessels, 145 meters long and with a displacement of 13,200 tons. 5 boilers (burning oil) and 2 turbine sets gave nearly 8000 HP and more than 15 knots. The accommodation was for 150 passengers in first class, 50 in second class and 40 in third class, there was also room for more than 600 immigrants. Unfortunately, the second funnel was a fake one, with no real function. The ocean liners were allocated to the 3 premier routes of the Spanish Line: From the Mediterranean to Colombia and Venezuela, from the Mediterranean to Brazil and the River Plate, and from the Bay of Biscay to Cuba, Mexico and New York.

During the Spanish Civil war, Juan Sebastian Elcano was requisitioned by the republican government and made 3 trips to the Soviet Union, but in the last one (as early as July 1937) she was interned in Odessa, in 1939 after the republican collapse she was seized by the soviets and renamed Wolga. During WWII she was converted in a hospital ship and renamed Odessa. After the war, she returned to the civilian life and renamed for another time as Jakutia. Probably she was scrapped in the 1960s or 70s.

Marques de Comillas was also under republican flag. She was requisiotioned early in the war for being used as a hospital ship. She participated in the ill-fated republican attempt to conquer Mallorca from August to September 1936. After an initial success, the republican troops were unable to crush the resistance of the rebel garrison in that island and were forced to retreat.
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After this failure, Comillas was allocated to the shipping from the Soviet Union. But in February 1937, while returning from Odessa, she was being waited by the francoist cruisers Baleares and Cervera and by the auxiliary cruisers Mallorca, Puchol (qv) and Lazaro (qv) and was captured without any chance of fleeing to a republican harbour. In national service, she was painted gray and was used as troop transport and as a cargo vessel (mainly from Italy with war material, at least 6 journeys only in the second half of 1937).

In January 1938 and January 1939, Comillas was allocated to an important political use: being a moor pilgrim´s ship to Mecca. The trip was so important to Burgos (the francoist capital) that the most powerful national cruisers, Canarias and Baleares were diverted from the blocade of the republican coast to serve as escort to the ocean liner. The rest of the year she was traveling to Italian ports (specially Spezia) with war material. The last trip of Comillas during the SCW was to Bizerta, with the francoist crews that were going to man the surrendered ships of the republican fleet.

After the war, she was modified at Matagorda (Cadiz) and the fake funnel was landed. During WWII she rescued several sailors (both from allied or axis ships) and together with Magallanes were the sole and tenuous line between Spain and the Spanish communities abroad. Finally, she was transporting immigrants from Spain (mainly Canary islands) to Venezuela until 1959. In 1960 once again she served as troop carrier when there was a confrontation between Morocco and Spain for Ifni. Later she was refitted for last time, being converted in a ship with only one class, for 900 passengers. Finally, in November 1961 Comillas had a severe fire at Ferrol, so severe that the vessel was considered beyond salvation and was scrapped.

Magallanes was also in republican hands, and as her sisters, allocated to the transport of war material from the Soviet Union. But in her second voyage in June 1937, while returning from Odessa, she rammed the Italian vessel Capo Pino, which sank rapidly. The judges at Istanbul seized the liner as guarantee of compensation for the italiannline. After paying a fine of 75,000 pounds plus additional 3,000 pounds to the turkish harbour, the owners were able to rescue the ship both from ottoman authorities and the republican government (and also soviet agents), arriving to Cadiz during the last months of the civil war.

At Cadiz she was repaired from the damages of the previous ramming, and during the reform, she lost her second and fake funnel.
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Together with Marques de Comillas she was the core of the transatlantic spanish shipping during WWII and immediate postwar. After the end of the world war, she served as immigrant ship until she was paid off in 1953 and scrapped 4 years later in Bilbao.

Credits: Colombamike helped me a lot since he knew my interest in Marques de Comillas (one childhood friend was the grandchild of a peruvian doctor working in the hospital ship Comillas) and his aid is reflected in many pictures, photographs and useful comments. I also "steal" the color of the masts and details in the lifeboats of the liner Alfonso XIII by Novice: "plagiarism is the most sincere form of praise" :lol: Lots of thanks to both of them. Cheers.

Author:  Charguizard [ December 1st, 2020, 12:40 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: Spanish Civil War vessels

Very pretty, I'm glad you keep them coming

This last ship shows a very good sense of volume since you chose to shade the walls of all the decks that are inboard of the deck above.

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