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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 10th, 2020, 4:40 am
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Ranger class (US):
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When the Confederate Navy launched what would become CSS Gettysburg in February of 1911 the US was again caught off guard. Although the Helena class of armored cruisers were really light battlecruisers in all but name (and would in fact be re-designated as battlecruisers four years later) they were outclassed by the new Confederate ships which were based on the British Indefatigable class and armed with 12” main guns. Clearly a new design was needed and for inspiration BuC&R turned to Germany. Chief Tallmadge’s rational for this was simply that the German approach – heavier armor and better compartmentalization at the expense of firepower (and to some extent speed) was more in keeping with US naval doctrine. When the keel for the first of these new ships – later christened USS Ranger – was laid down at the Brooklyn Navy Yard in June of 1913, it was clear she and her sisters would be different from anything the US Navy had built before. Their hull design, for example, was taken from contemporary German examples such as SMS Seydlitz save for the bow-mounted submerged torpedo tube which Tallmadge disdained. They were also the longest and fastest US capital ships of their time. Three ships; USS Ranger, USS Independence, and USS Brandywine, were built to this design – they were named in honor of the steam frigates of the Brandywine class of 1872. Their hull numbers started with CB-3 as Potomac (ex-Helena) and Constellation (ex-Salt Lake City) had been re-classed as CB-1 and CB-2 in 1915.

The Ranger class was 658 feet long overall, had a 93 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 30 feet. They displaced 22,869 tons normal and 23,945 tons full load. They were armed with ten 12”/50 Mk.9 guns in five twin turrets along the centerline. The secondary battery was eighteen 5”/50 Mk.5’s in casemate mounts while the light battery consisted of 4 3”/50 Mk.6 guns in open deck mounts. Unlike US battleships, the Ranger class mounted four 21” submerged torpedo tubes – two to port, and two to starboard. Four Kellar-Morrison geared turbines producing 60,430 shaft horsepower which propelled these ships to a design speed of 26 knots. Range was 7,000 nautical miles. Armor comprised a 11.5” belt tapering to 4” at bow and stern, a 2” armored deck, 11” main turrets with 9” barbettes, 3” casemates, and a 10” conning tower. Crew complement was 1,069.

Launched in 1915-16 and commissioned by the end of 1917, the new battlecruisers were designated as flagships of the First, Second, and Third Scouting Squadrons – which had been created as independent patrol forces. Thus they did not serve on neutrality patrols during the Great War but instead served as heavy reconnaissance units and “showed the flag” throughout the Caribbean and Pacific. Brandywine visited Japan in 1920 where she was politely but unfavorably compared to the Imperial Navy’s Kongo class battlecruisers which were more heavily armed and faster, but with lighter armor – as was fitting as they have been designed (and the class ship built) in Britain. During the War of the Americas one was lost – Independence was sunk in 1926 during the opening round of Second Chesapeake by Confederate battlecruisers (including, ironically, Gettysburg) when the two scouting forces met prior to the main battle. After the war the two survivors were refit during 1932-33 and continued to serve through the Great Pacific War. Ranger was sunk by Japanese aircraft while screening the carrier James Madison late in 1943 when a Yokosuka D4Y “Judy” dive-bomber off the carrier Soryu stuck the ship with a 500kg bomb just aft C turret which tore through the thin armored deck and touched off the magazine. Brandywine survived the war but was deemed obsolete in the postwar world dominated by aircraft and missiles and was decommissioned and scrapped beginning in 1949.

Bonhomme Richard class (US):
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The follow-on to the Ranger class, the three-ship Bonhomme Richard class, were designed as more powerful and capable battlecruisers which would outclass their CSN rivals. In this they largely succeeded and more than that became the “definitive” US battlecruisers as their successors, the Essex class, were progressive refinements but only one was completed to the original design – the other two being converted to aircraft carriers while under construction. Based on the Nebraska class battleships then building, the Bonhomme Richard’s were longer (690 feet) and faster (28 knots) variants on the battleship’s design. The class consisted of USS Bonhomme Richard (CB-6), USS Hornet (CB-7), and USS Constitution (CB-8). They were laid down 1916-17, launched 1918-19, and commissioned 1919-20.

The Bonhomme Richard class was 690 feet long overall, had a 95 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 30 feet. They displaced 29,048 tons normal and 30,313 tons full load. They were armed with eight 14”/50 Mk.5 guns in four two-gun turrets along the centerline. The secondary battery was twenty 5”/50 Mk.7’s all in casemate mounts while the light battery consisted of eight 3”/55 Mk.8 AA guns in open deck mounts. Like the Ranger class, the new ships mounted four submerged 21” torpedo tubs. Geared turbines; Avondale in Bonhomme Richard and Constitution, Kellar-Morrison in Hornet, producing 94,630 shaft horsepower (the most in any US warship to date) drove these ships to their design speed of 28 knots and beyond – Hornet reportedly reached 30 knots while in light ship conditions off California in 1921 but this was never confirmed – nevertheless, these ships routinely reached nearly 29 knots while in service. Armor scheme was similar to that of the Ranger class albeit slightly heavier; a 12” belt tapering to 6” at bow and stern, a 3” deck, 12” main turrets with 10” barbettes, 4” casemates, and a 12” conning tower. Normal crew complement was 1,279.

After commissioning, the service careers of the Bonhomme Richard’s paralleled that of the Ranger’s, with Constitution visiting Europe in 1921 as part of a large US squadron’s goodwill tour supporting President Hiram Johnson’s diplomatic efforts following the Great War. The only loss to the class occurred during the War of the Americas when Hornet was sunk in 1925 during the initial confrontation with the Confederate Gulf Squadron during Operation Citadel. After the flagship USS Connecticut had been sunk, Hornet and the lone surviving cruiser; USS Wichita, came under fire from the CSS Lafayette and her escorts, with the battlecruiser battered by at least a dozen 15” and numerous lighter shell hits. Dead in the water with only a single working turret, Hornet was out of the fight but refused to strike, when the cruiser CSS Dionysus closed with the crippled battlecruiser and torpedoed her – she capsized and sank less than ten minutes later. After the war the two remaining ships were refit twice – once in 1934-35 and again in 1943-44 during the Great Pacific War (primarily to augment their anti-aircraft capabilities). When the war ended in 1948, the ships remained in service for another year before being decommissioned. Unlike their predecessors, they remained in ordinary for nearly a decade before finally being sold off in 1957 and scrapped.

Next up: US light cruisers

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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emperor_andreas
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 11th, 2020, 11:20 pm
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Awesome work! I'm guessing Essex will feature in the 1920s ships?

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 17th, 2020, 6:07 am
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Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Boise class (US):
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The first true light cruisers built for the US Navy, the Boise class represented a radical departure from both the last protected cruiser (Spokane class) and last scout cruiser (Lake St Clair class) designs. They were larger, faster, and had greater range than earlier cruisers. Their hull and superstructure design was new from the keel up and was thoroughly contemporary, simple and straightforward. The one old fashioned element was the mounting of eight of the ship’s main guns in “stacked” casemates in the forward and aft superstructure. Despite this the Boise class was a welcome addition to the fleet and began a long line of US light cruisers which continues to this day (the modern Salem class of guided missile cruisers is a good example). Eight of these ships were built; Boise, Des Moines, Chicago, Omaha, Cheyenne, Eugene, Billings, and Fargo. The Boise’s were the first US ships officially classed as light cruisers; hull numbers ran from CL-1 to CL-8.

The Boise class was 556 feet long overall, had a 55 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 20 feet. They displaced 8,283 tons normal and 9,089 tons full load. They were armed with twelve 6”/50 Mk.10 guns; four in two twin turrets fore and aft, and eight in casemates. Eight 3”/50 Mk.7 light guns in open mounts and eight 21” torpedo tubes in four twin swivel mounts completed the weapons suite. The new cruisers were powered by four Kellar-Morrison geared turbines producing 51,270 shp giving a design speed of 29 knots. Range was 7,500 nautical miles. Armor protection consisted of a 3” belt, 2” deck, 3” turrets and casemates, and a 3” conning tower. Normal crew complement was 498.

Laid down in 1911-12, launched in 1913-14, and commissioned between 1914 and 1915, the Boise’s were split between the Atlantic and Pacific fleets after entering service where they formed the core of light reconnaissance squadrons – supplementing or replacing older scout cruisers. Like many US ships of their era they were scheduled for refits during the early 1920’s which were delayed by the War of the Americas. During the conflict three were lost; Chicago to a Confederate submarine in 1924, while Cheyenne and Billings were both sunk by aircraft from the CSN’s last operational carrier; CSS Birmingham, during the brutal battles for control of the Philippines in 1926. After the war the surviving ships were given a modest refit during 1934-35 but only served a few more years before being decommissioned; Boise and Des Moines in 1939, Omaha, Eugene, and Fargo the following year.

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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emperor_andreas
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 17th, 2020, 9:26 pm
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Very nice work!

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 20th, 2020, 11:38 pm
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Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Wilmington class (US):
[ img ]

Progressive refinements to the Boise class, the eight ships of the Wilmington class were authorized in 1914 and laid down beginning the following year. Wilmington, Newark, Tacoma, Philadelphia, San Jose, Colorado Springs, Huntington, and Joliet made up the class. Hull numbers ran from CL-9 to CL-16.

The Wilmington class was 570 feet long overall, had a 57 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 20 feet. They displaced 8,800 tons normal and 9,394 tons full load. They were armed with eight 6”/50 Mk.10 guns in four twin turret in two superfiring pairs fore and aft. The secondary battery consisted of eight 5”/50 Mk.7’s in casemates similar to those mounted on the Boise class. Eight 3”/55 Mk.8 anti-aircraft guns were in deck-mounts in the superstructure and amidships. As with the Boise’s, eight 21” torpedo tubes in four twin swivel mounts completed the weapons suite. Four Avondale geared turbines rated at 60,382 shp total powered the ships to a design speed of 30 knots, but all eight ships exceeded this is service. For example, USS Tacoma (CL-11) officially reached 32.1 knots in calm waters off Hawaii in 1922, and even after their major reconstructions in the 1930’s could still reach their design speed. Range remained 7,500 nautical miles. Armor protection consisted of a 3” belt, 2.5” deck, 3” turrets and casemates, and a 4” conning tower. Normal crew complement was 522.

Commissioned between 1918 and 1919, the new cruisers would serve a long time in the USN. During the War of the Americas the only losses were Newark, sunk in 1925 during the hunt for the Confederate Gulf Squadron, and Joliet, torpedoed and sunk by the submarine CSS G.III in late August of 1927, only a few weeks before the end of the War. Joliet was in fact the last US warship lost in the conflict. In 1935-36, the six survivors of this class underwent major refits and continued to serve throughout the Great Pacific War, although no longer considered front-line units. Two were lost during this latter conflict; Philadelphia in 1944 to Japanese aircraft while escorting a re-supply convoy to the East Indies, and San Jose in 1946 to an Akarui (“Bright”) rocket-propelled glide bomb. After the war the remaining ships were quickly retired and scrapped save for Huntington which was converted into a target ship. She was sunk off the coast of Washington in a live fire exercise in 1955.

Next up: US destroyers 1911-1920

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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emperor_andreas
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 21st, 2020, 3:47 am
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Awesome job!

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 22nd, 2020, 4:12 am
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Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Weaver class (US):
[ img ]

When USS Kimbrough entered service in October of 1909 as the last of the Lockwood class destroyers, few in the US Navy realized it would be another six years before a new destroyer class would be commissioned. BuC&R, however, was of the opinion that the US had fallen behind both the Confederacy and European powers in destroyer design and undertook a series of studies beginning in late 1909 to address the issue. The result was a series of designs each building on the foundation of the previous class in a systematic way. The first of these new destroyers was the Weaver class, first commissioned in 1915. Nine; Weaver, Murphy, Baker, Montgomery, Williamson, Howell, Cooper, Lawrence, and Sims were built between 1912 and 1916. Assigned the “DD” prefix for the first time – hull numbers for the new class ran from DD-61 to DD-69.

The Weaver class was 320 feet long overall, had a 31 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 9 feet. They displaced 1,115 tons normal and 1,244 tons full load. They were armed with four 4”/50 Mk.9 guns; one forward, one aft and two amidships. The torpedo armament was much heavier than previous US destroyers; eight 21” torpedo tubes in four twin swivel mounts with eight reload torpedoes carried. Two Kellar-Morrison direct-drive turbines producing 18,000 shaft horsepower gave these ships a design speed of 30 knots. Range was 4,700 nautical miles and normal crew complement was 110.

After entering service, the Weaver class was refit in 1918 with a pair of depth charge racks, a new Mk.1 “Y-gun” depth charge projector, and hydrophones. During the War of the Americas four were lost; Williamson in 1924, Murphy and Lawrence in 1925, and Howell in 1926. After the war, the five remaining ships served in the peacetime fleet until they were decommissioned and scrapped between 1935 and 1936.

Lawson class (US):
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Progressive refinements of the Weaver class, the seven ships of the Lawson class were slightly longer and heavier than their predecessors, but were otherwise similar. The class was laid down between 1914 and 1915 and commissioned between 1917 and 1918. The class consisted of Lawson, Bishop, Garrett, Morrison, Underwood, Carson, and Abbott, hull numbers ran from DD-70 to DD-76.

The Lawson class was 323 feet long overall, had a 31 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 9 feet. They displaced 1,173 tons normal and 1,301 tons full load. They were armed with four 4”/50 Mk.9’s, the forward gun featuring a gun shield for the first time. Again, eight 21” torpedo tubes in four twin launchers were carried, in addition to a pair of 1-pounder (37mm) anti-aircraft guns. Two sets of Avondale geared turbines producing 24,540 shaft horsepower gave these ships a design speed of 32 knots. Range was 4,900 nautical miles and normal crew complement was 115.

Although launched without them, the class was almost immediately refit with depth charge racks, Y-gun, and hydrophones. One ship, USS Morrison, was lost to a grounding incident on Nantucket in 1922, while three were lost during the War of the Americas; Garrett in 1924, Abbott in 1925, and Lawson in 1927. With the Armistice, the rest of the class remained in service until 1937, when they were retired.

Atkinson class (US):
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The final incarnation of the Weaver class, the Atkinson class were not only the most powerful version, but also served as the basis for the destroyers built under the Emergency Naval Construction Program during the War of the Americas. Fourteen; Atkinson, Norton, Stephenson, Conway, Maynard, Hurst, Mathis, Livingston, Weeks, Pennington, Finley, Jacobson, McIntyre, and Hendricks, were built between 1915 and 1920. Hull numbers ran from DD-77 to DD-90.

The Atkinson class was 328 feet long overall, had a 31 foot beam, and a nominal draft of 9 feet. They displaced 1,308 tons normal and 1,439 tons full load. They were again armed with four 4”/50 Mk.9’s, all with gun shields, a single 3”/55 Mk.8 AA gun, and twelve 21” torpedo tubes in four triple launchers. Originally intended to carry ASW gear when built – supply problems forced a delay until after the ships had entered service (and was the target of a congressional investigation as well). Two sets of geared turbines (Avondale in the first seven ships; Kellar-Morrison in the last seven) producing 26,930 shaft horsepower were needed to reach the desired design speed of 32 knots. Range remained 4,900 nautical miles and normal crew complement was 125.

The new destroyers would serve only briefly in the peacetime fleet, but would see considerable action during the War of the Americas with four being lost during the conflict; Mathis in 1923, McIntyre in 1925, and Stephenson and Conway during the Battle of Subic Bay in 1926. After the war the surviving ships continued in service. In 1940, the five oldest; Atkinson, Norton, Maynard, Hurst, and Livingston, were retired, but the remainder received a major refit in 1942-43 and served throughout the Great Pacific War with two additional ships being lost; Pennington in 1942, and Jacobson in 1944. Functionally obsolete in the postwar era, the three remaining ships of this class were decommissioned by the end of 1949.

Next up: US submarines 1911-1920

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on May 22nd, 2020, 11:24 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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emperor_andreas
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 22nd, 2020, 12:15 pm
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Awesome job...the 'four-pipers' come at last! :D

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 23rd, 2020, 1:26 pm
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E-class (US):
[ img ]

The second production class of US submarines; the E-class was a completely new design having little resemblance to earlier classes. Five ships (E-1 to E-5) were built; all commissioning in 1914. Hull numbers ran from SS-10 to SS-14.

The E-class was 143 feet long, with a 16 foot beam and a nominal draft of 12 feet. They displaced 335 tons surfaced, and 409 tons submerged. They were armed with four 18” bow torpedo tubes with stowage for up to five Mk.11 standard torpedoes. Eigner & Sons again provided the diesel engines, two of which supplied 830 horsepower which allowed surface speeds of 14 knots while the electric motors were capable of 12 knots submerged. These ships had a range of 2,300 nautical miles (surfaced) and could dive to a maximum depth of 200 feet. They had a crew of 24.

After entering service, the subs participated in neutrality patrols of the US East Coast during the Great War but accidents would claim two of the class. In 1918 USS E-2 was lost with all hands following a diving accident, while USS E-4 was sunk by an internal explosion (most likely battery related) in 1921. The remaining three boats continued in service until 1922, when they were decommissioned and scrapped.

F-class (US):
[ img ]

The successor to the E-class, the F-class entered service in 1917. In design they were enlarged versions of the E-class but were faster and with greatly improved range. They represented the first attempt by the US to produce a long-ranged submarine capable of operating away from coastal areas. Five were built (F-1 to F-5). Hull numbers ran from SS-15 to SS-19.

The F-class was 168 feet long, with an 18 foot beam and a nominal draft of 14 feet. They displaced 450 tons surfaced, and 549 tons submerged. They were armed with four 18” bow torpedo tubes with stowage for up to seven torpedoes and for the first time mounted a deck gun – a 3”/50 Mk.7 modified for submarine use. Known as the Mk.14, the new gun would be used on US subs throughout the first half of the War of the Americas. A new company; Atlas-Imperial Diesel Engine Company of Oakland, California, provided the diesel engines of which two six-cylinder units were installed; each rated at 750 horsepower. Speeds were 16 knots surfaced and 12 knots submerged. Range was an impressive 4.500 nautical miles while surfaced and 150 nautical miles submerged. Normal crew complement was 30.

Following neutrality patrols during the Great War, the F-class continued in service through the War of the Americas – and was the oldest US submarine class to take part in the conflict. These boats faced increasingly sophisticated Confederate destroyers and ASW tactics, still, only two were lost; USS F-5 in 1924, and USS F-3 in 1926. The surviving boats were nevertheless completely obsolete by the end of the war and were retired and scrapped within a year of the Armistice.

Next up: Confederate ships 1911-1920

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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emperor_andreas
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas RebootPosted: May 23rd, 2020, 3:54 pm
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Awesome!

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