|erik_t wrote: *||July 6th, 2020, 10:23 pm|
That's a whopper of a question, and there's no concise answer.
http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~brown/VTShi ... Design.htm
The long and the short of it comes down to a thoughtful examination of existing ships and a lot of reading, and that's obviously just to get to snarky amateur level. The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems is a good place to start, and is available (some version, anyway) in many university libraries. It is nicely complemented by many illustrated design histories (Friedman's are the go-to IMHO, but there are others) and documents like Principles of Naval Weapons Systems.
Unfortunately, none of these are cheap and (aside from the first) have a decided USN focus.
One free adjunct are theses and similar academic works. I can't find them immediately at hand, but for many years, Virginia Tech kept naval engineering senior design projects available online, about 100 pages each, typically a response to a notional USN RFP of some kind.
Navy Post-Grad School has a similar collection:
http://web.nps.edu/Academics/GSEAS/TSSE ... jects.html