Do these fictional ships have to be attributed to real nations?
My favorite fictional ship is the Staberinde from Iain M Bank's use of weapons.
Not much is said specifically about it, but it was a battleship on a planet with a technology level equivalent to early 20th century earth. During a war it was captured by an unspecified rebel army. It was apparently a particularly large/powerful ship to serve as a fleet in being on it's own (like the Bismark or Yamato) but the rebellion lacked the logistical support to send it on missions. Instead they used it to capture and hold a city by sailing it up a river estuary at high tide, then cementing it into a makeshift drydock to make it an unsinkable artillery platform. The situation escalated into a very nasty siege which was eventually broken with the help of air power on behalf of the royalist forces. The protagonist and his adopted brother were on opposite sides with one commanding the ship and other other commanding the royalist forces besieging it. I can't go into any more detail without spoiling the entire story (it's a good one) but the events left a deep impression on the protagonist, and he often uses Staberinde as a pseudonym. When he comes back to his homeworld hundreds of years latter, he is shocked to find that the ship is still where he left it, having been made into a park. In this scene, his physical and mental wounds resemble the wreckage of the ship. It's form preserved, but it's significance obscured by the passage of time.
Probably the closest thing to a physical description. It's bigger than the Yamato, but seems to have a pre-dreadnaught style tiered armament.
He saw another boat ; a ship ; a hundred thousand tonnes of destruction , sitting in its own dry image of desuetude , its layers bristling outwards. Primary, secondary, tertiary, anti-aircraft, small...
The ship (along with other sea and spacegoing vessels in the story) mostly serves as a metaphor for... something. Layers, rings, and hierarchies are also important.
"I don't believe in argument," he said, looking out into the darkness (and saw a towering ship, a capital ship, ringed with its layers and levels of armament and armour, dark against the dusk light, but not dead).
No lights burned on the Staberinde. It sat squat against the grey leechings of the false dawn, its dim silhouette a piled cone which only hinted at the concentric loops and lines of its decks and guns. Some effect of the marsh mists between him and the ziggurat of the ship made it look as thoug hits black shape was not attached to the land at all, but floated over it, poised like some threatening dark cloud.
However, the accuracy of it's main battery seems to be on par with late war battleships.
Sir,' - it was Swaels- 'Sir, perhaps we should be setting off now, back to headquarters. The cloud is breaking from the east, and it will be dawn soon... we shouldn't be caught in range. ''I know that,' he said. He glanced out at the dark outline of the Staberinde, and felt himself flinch a little, as though he expected its huge guns to belch flame right there and then,
Assuming they aren't rounding up for dramatic effect, the Guns are nearly two inches bigger than the Yamato's.
They had thought they'd won. In the spring they'd had more men and more materiel and in particular they had more heavy guns; at sea the Stabennde lurked as a threat but not a presence, famished of the fuel it needed for effective raids against their forces and convoys; almost more of a liability. But then Elethiomel had had the great battleship tugged and dredged through the seasonal channels, over the ever-changing banks to the empty dry-dock, where they'd blasted the extra room and somehow got theship inside, closed the gates, pumped out the water and pumped in concrete, and - so his advisors had suggested - probably some sort of shock absorbing cushion between the metal and the concrete, or the half-metre calibre guns would have shaken the vessel to pieces by now. They suspected Elethiomel had used rubbish; junk, to line the sides of his improvised fortress.
Hundreds of years later, it's a park.
He stumbled another couple of steps, shook Sma off, and turned round once, taking in the parkland; shaped trees and manicured lawns, ornamental walls and delicate pergolas, stone-bordered ponds and shady paths through quiet groves. And, in the distance, set amongst mature trees, the tattered black shape of the Staberinde. 'They've made a fucking park out of it, 'he breathed, and stood, swaying, bent slightly at the waist, looking at the battered silhouette of the old warship.
The ship has a single funnel, and radar.
The ship had been left as it was; bombed, shelled, strafed, blasted and ripped but not destroyed. Where hands could not reach and rain did nots trike, traces of the original soot from flames two centuries old still marked the armour plate. Gun turrets lay peeled open like tin cans; gunbarrels and range-finders bristled askew all over the mounting levels of deck; tangled stays and fallen aeriels lay strewn over shattered searchlights and lop-sided radar dishes; the single great funnel looked tipped and subsided, metal pitted and flayed
Super battleship with 100,000 ton displacement and 500mm primary battery, unspecified secondary, tertiary, anti-aircraft, and small armament. Roughly pyramidal superstructure layout with a single funnel. Equipped with radar.