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StealthJester
Post subject: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: August 25th, 2019, 5:59 pm
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Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Greetings!
This is the aircraft episode of the War of the Americas AU. It will be divided into two sections; 1910-1922 (prewar) and 1923-1927 (wartime) and listed US aircraft first, CS aircraft second.

Author’s note: Aircraft history buffs will note that some of the manufacturers in this timeline are real (albeit with different histories) – I decided to feature some of companies that were either short-lived or disappeared in mergers in OTL as major manufacturers in this timeline. Enjoy!

US Aircraft: 1910-1922:
After the first successful heavier than air flight by Edson Gallaudet in early 1907 the infant US aircraft industry grew quickly with the first military aircraft – the Gallaudet Model 5 scout – entering service by the end of 1910. Within ten years there were fourteen different aircraft manufacturers in the US, and ongoing antagonism with the Confederacy had led to designs fully the equal of any of the European powers.

Aeromarine 10:
[ img ]

The first Aeromarine design accepted into service, the “10” was a small two-seat patrol seaplane flown by the US Navy. First entering service in 1914, a total of 40 were built. It was re-designated as the Aeromarine PA (Patrol-Aeromarine) under the system adopted by the USN in 1919. Quickly rendered obsolete by the rapid pace of aircraft development during this period the PA was withdrawn from service by 1920.

Specifications (Aeromarine PA):
Crew: 2
Length: 9.3 meters
Wingspan: 15.1 meters
Height: 3.8 meters
Wing area: 39.6 m^2
Empty weight: 930 kg
Gross weight: 1,230 kg
Wing loading: 31.1 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 120 hp Hall-Scott A-4 water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 65 knots
Range: 265 nm
Ceiling: 1,400 meters
Armament: normally none, although some aircraft were equipped with one 0.30 caliber machine gun in a flexible mount in the observer’s cockpit

Aeromarine 14:
[ img ]

The successor to the Aeromarine 10 was designed to fulfill a Navy requirement for a more capable patrol aircraft. Accepted into service in 1916, the Aeromarine 14 was a vast improvement on the earlier Aeromarine 10 and was a large twin-engine seaplane also capable of functioning as a patrol bomber. Re-designated as the Aeromarine P2A in 1919, a total of 116 were built. A rugged design popular with its crews, the P2M was nevertheless a handful to fly for a single pilot and thus subsequent designs would have a minimum two-man flight crew. Despite this, the type remained in service through the beginning of the War of the Americas before being replaced by newer aircraft in 1925.

Specifications (Aeromarine P2A2):
Crew: 4
Length: 14.1 meters
Wingspan: 29.2 meters
Height: 5.3 meters
Wing area: 105.3 m^2
Empty weight: 3,420 kg
Gross weight: 4,980 kg
Wing loading: 47.3 kg/m^2
Engines: 2 x 350 hp Hall-Scott A-8 water-cooled SOHC V-12
Maximum speed: 83 knots
Range: 370 nm
Ceiling: 3,050 meters
Armament: 3 x 0.30 caliber machine guns, 210 kg of bombs (external)

Avondale Model A2:
[ img ]

When marine steam turbine giant Avondale Engineering decided to enter aircraft manufacture in 1912 it did so in a big way. Its first design – the Model A1 – was a large land-based bomber intended for the US Army Signal Corps – the short-lived predecessor of the US Army Air Service (established in 1916). Although it did not enter production, the A1 did generate enough interest that the Army requested an improved version. The resulting Model A2 entered service as an evaluation aircraft in 1915, but proved disappointing as it was underpowered and failed to meet any of the Army’s requirements. Although three more A2’s were built in an attempt to overcome the design’s shortcomings, in the end a modified version with more powerful engines would be required – leading to the successful Model A4. The four Model A2’s built were scrapped by the end of 1917.

Specifications:
Crew: 5
Length: 19.4 meters
Wingspan: 30.8 meters
Height: 6.8 meters
Wing area: 154.6 m^2
Empty weight: 3,860 kg
Gross weight: 6,360 kg
Wing loading: 41.5 kg/m^2
Engines: 2 x 340 hp Avondale C1200 water-cooled SOHC V-12
Maximum speed: 80 knots
Range: 480 nm
Ceiling: 2,600 meters
Armament: none, intended armament was 4 x 0.30 caliber machine guns and 900 kg of bombs in an internal bomb-bay (not installed)

Avondale Model A4:
[ img ]

After the failure of the Model A2 to meet requirements the Avondale design team worked to improve the design. This happened quickly as the basic airframe was sound but more powerful engines were necessary – forcing Avondale to look to outside suppliers as its own improved C1280 was still in development. The power-plant finally selected was newcomer Mayfield Motor Corporation’s WA360. The powerful W-12, like its contemporary – the British Napier Lion – was a popular and long-lived engine which was still being built in quantity nearly two decades later. With the new engines, the Model A4 went into full production in 1916, entering service the following year. Designated as the Avondale DB-1 (Day Bomber-1) under the USAAS 1916 designation system, a total of 60 of the type were eventually produced. Remaining in service until 1924 they did see some action during the War of the Americas but were quickly withdrawn after suffering heavy losses to more advanced Confederate fighters.

Specifications (Avondale DB-1A):
Crew: 5
Length: 19.4 meters
Wingspan: 30.8 meters
Height: 6.8 meters
Wing area: 154.6 m^2
Empty weight: 3,890 kg
Gross weight: 6,420 kg
Wing loading: 41.5 kg/m^2
Engines: 2 x 370 hp Mayfield WA360 water-cooled DOHC W-12
Maximum speed: 85 knots
Range: 600 nm
Ceiling: 2,600 meters
Armament: 4 x 0.30 caliber machine guns and 900 kg of bombs (internal)

Avondale Model A5:
[ img ]

Avondale’s first foray into the pursuit (fighter) category, the Model A5 was a success with 118 built, but was overshadowed by the Blackwell Model BD which entered service a year before the A5 in September of 1917. Although faster than Blackwell’s fighter, the A5 wasn’t as maneuverable due to its higher wing loading but could carry a small bomb-load under the lower wings and was thus the US’s first true fighter-bomber. Re-designated under the 1916 USAAS system as the Avondale PW (Pursuit, Water-cooled)-5, the A5 remained in service as a trainer and observation aircraft throughout the War of the Americas and was not retired until 1931.

Specifications (Avondale PW-5D):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.7 meters
Wingspan: 11.7 meters
Height: 2.9 meters
Wing area: 36.9 m^2
Empty weight: 960 kg
Gross weight: 1,440 kg
Wing loading: 39.1 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 275 hp Hall-Scott A-6C water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 109 knots
Range: 300 nm
Ceiling: 5,500 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns, 110 kg of bombs (external)

Blackwell Model BD:
[ img ]

Three brothers from Dayton, Ohio; Charles, Henry and Rodger Blackwell, built their first plane in early 1913, and founded Blackwell Brothers Aeronautics Works two years later. The new company’s first military contact established it has an up and comer in the industry. Introduced as the Blackwell PW-2 in 1917, the Model BD was a single-seat pursuit aircraft of single-bay biplane configuration. Although slower than its contemporaries; the Avondale Model A5 and Loening Model B, the PW-2 was well liked by its pilots for its nimble maneuverability and was considered easy and forgiving to fly. A total of 220 were built for the USAAS by 1919. The plane was also the first US type to be exported; 60 were built for Mexico and an additional 24 for Peru. Despite its success, the plane’s time as the premier US fighter of the period was nevertheless short as it was quickly surpassed by more and more advanced fighters – including new designs by Blackwell – and the last operational planes were retired by the beginning of 1924.

Specifications (Blackwell PW-2C):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.5 meters
Wingspan: 10.6 meters
Height: 2.7 meters
Wing area: 26.7 m^2
Empty weight: 640 kg
Gross weight: 890 kg
Wing loading: 33.3 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 200 hp Mayfield VA180 water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 100 knots
Range: 300 nm
Ceiling: 4,600 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns

Broussard C.2:
[ img ]

Founded as Broussard Aviation Company in 1917 by a former designer for the French Caudron company, Francois Broussard, the firm’s first product was the Broussard C.2. Based the Caudron G.6, the new plane was intended as an observation aircraft and light bomber. Unusual as one of the only indigenously designed US planes powered by rotary engines, the C.2 was initially considered difficult to fly due to the torque of its engines, but beginning with the tenth C.2 built the Hall-Scott RA-3’s were installed as “left” and “right” hand models in an attempt to alleviate the issue. This was only partly successful as overall flight characteristics remained poor and combined with cramped accommodations for its three-man crew resulted in the plane seeing limited production – only 23 were built. Re-designated as the Broussard NBS (Night Bomber, Short-range)-1, the C.2 was never popular with its crews and was quickly replaced in front-line service by the Wittemann-Lewis NBS-2. All had been scrapped by the beginning of 1921.

Specifications (Broussard NBS-1):
Crew: 3
Length: 11.5 meters
Wingspan: 23.1 meters
Height: 4.0 meters
Wing area: 52.3 m^2
Empty weight: 1,260 kg
Gross weight: 1,930 kg
Wing loading: 36.9 kg/m^2
Engines: 2 x 180 hp Hall-Scott RA-3 air-cooled OHV 9-cylinder rotary
Maximum speed: 85 knots
Range: 280 nm
Ceiling: 4,700 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns, 100 kg of bombs (external)

Ellison E.3:
[ img ]

A single-engine floatplane, the Ellison E.3 was a scout/observation aircraft built for the US Navy by the Ellison Aircraft company, founded in 1913 by Alexander Ellison of California. The E.3 entered service with the USN in mid-1918. Large for a single-seat scout, the plane was powered by one of the first US radial engines in widespread use – the Lawrance L-1 – and its greater fuselage interior volume allowed larger fuel tanks giving the plane an impressive (for the day) range of 450 nautical miles. The first US aircraft to be adapted for ship-board catapult launches, many of the 168 E.3A’s built for the USN ended up assigned to capital ships as scouts and observation craft. Sixty of the floatplanes were permanently stationed overseas either in the Caribbean, Hawaii or on Guam, while others were stationed with allied countries using leased facilities. A further 54 E.3B’s were delivered to the Armada Mexicana (Mexican Navy) operating from coastal bases. Becoming the Ellison OSE (Observation-Scout-Ellison) in 1919, the plane was gradually phased out as newer designs became available, remaining in service with the USN until 1932 while some Mexican E.3B’s were still flying as trainers as late as 1938.

Specifications (Ellison OSE-3):
Crew: 1
Length: 9.8 meters
Wingspan: 10.9 meters
Height: 4.2 meters
Wing area: 36.3 m^2
Empty weight: 910 kg
Gross weight: 1,230 kg
Wing loading: 33.8 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 190 hp Lawrance L-1 air-cooled OHV 7-cylinder radial
Maximum speed: 88 knots
Range: 450 nm
Ceiling: 2,900 meters
Armament: 1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on September 2nd, 2019, 5:50 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Andrzej1
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: August 25th, 2019, 6:09 pm
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Excellent planes! Can't wait to see them in SB scale! :)


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Hood
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: August 26th, 2019, 8:16 am
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These are wonderful AU aircraft, some good real-world influences can be seen in the designs and they all look good enough to be genuine.
I look forward to seeing more of these.

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eswube
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: August 26th, 2019, 7:08 pm
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It's a nice series, but I see few issues there: on most of these it looks like the wings (and sometimes the horizontal stabilizers) lack any airfoil, and most importantly, they have no shading at all. (I also see a potential for some fine-tuning stylistically, but that's just me)

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reytuerto
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: August 27th, 2019, 12:25 am
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Nicely done aircraft!


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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: September 1st, 2019, 11:47 pm
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Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Greetings!

More prewar US aircraft:

Gallaudet Model 5:
[ img ]

The first military aircraft built in the US; the Gallaudet Model 5 was also the first success for the pioneering company founded by Edson Gallaudet. He had struggled after the series of successful flights of his Model 1 during 1907, investors were hard to find and many in the US Army Signal Corps were leery of the new technology. By 1910, however, Gallaudet’s Model 4 had shown it was possible to build a viable heavier than air craft which could be used for observation and artillery spotting. The Signal Corps offered to purchase two modified Model 4’s for evaluation purposes. Delivered by the fall of the year, the two Model 5’s were put through an extensive series of tests which were largely successful, with the most significant complaint being the underpowered and heavy engine Gallaudet had designed for the plane. Fortunately, the Hall-Scott Motor Car Company had by then branched into experimental aircraft engines and their A-2 was made available. Two additional aircraft using the new engine were delivered and finally met the Army’s requirements, prompting the purchase of additional aircraft. Designated the Model 5-2, the twelve aircraft that followed formed the 1st Aero Squadron of the US Signal Corps by May of 1912. Unsurprisingly, the creation of an observation squadron by the US prompted the creation of a Confederate “interdiction” squadron of armed Keyes KS-A scouts. Soon after, all operational Model 5’s were armed as well, but with Gallaudet’s more advanced Model 9 entering service in 1914 the earlier plane’s days were numbered and all surviving examples were retired two years later.

Specifications (Model 5-2):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.8 meters
Wingspan: 8.7 meters
Height: 2.9 meters
Wing area: 23.3 m^2
Empty weight: 950 kg
Gross weight: 1,460 kg
Wing loading: 62.6 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 100 hp Hall-Scott A-2 water-cooled OHV inline 6-cylinder
Maximum speed: 80 knots
Range: 200 nm
Ceiling: 4,000 meters
Armament: 1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun fixed forward of cockpit (service aircraft only)

Gallaudet Model 9:
[ img ]

Although a success, Gallaudet’s Model 5 was quickly rendered obsolete by the rapid advance in aviation technology brought on by the intensifying arms race between the US and the Confederacy. More sophisticated designs coming out of Europe – particularly after the outbreak of the Great War in 1914 were also a factor. Gallaudet worked almost non-stop on refining his original design with Models 6 through 8 progressively more advanced aircraft – although none were accepted by the USAAS. With the Model 9, however, he finally had a winner. A conventional tractor biplane – the Model 9 included a number of refinements and was the first US aircraft to use ailerons instead of wing-warping for roll control. Designed as a scout/observation plane, the Model 9 had a crew of two and a range of 300 nautical miles. Entering service late in 1914, a total of 76 were built with an additional 18 built for the Argentina Army Aviation Service. Re-designated as OW (Observation, Water-cooled)-2 in 1916, the plane remained in use until mid-1925, while Argentinean Model 9’s were still in use as late as 1930.

Specifications (Gallaudet OW-2B):
Crew: 2
Length: 8.4 meters
Wingspan: 12.4 meters
Height: 3.4 meters
Wing area: 39.1 m^2
Empty weight: 880 kg
Gross weight: 1,420 kg
Wing loading: 36.3 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 190 hp Hall-Scott A-3 water-cooled OHV inline 6-cylinder
Maximum speed: 78 knots
Range: 300 nm
Ceiling: 3,350 meters
Armament: 1 or 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns in swivel mount in observer’s cockpit

Gallaudet Model 12:
[ img ]

Gallaudet’s first foray into designing a fighter, the Model 12 entered service a year before Blackwell’s Model BD – beginning the intense rivalry between the two firms that continued well into the 1950’s. A sleek and aerodynamic design resembling the German Albatros D.II fighter with its compact design and propeller spinner fared into the fuselage, the Model 12 was the first US fighter with synchronized firing gear for its two 0.30 caliber machine guns. Faster than the Model BD, but not as maneuverable, the Model 12 entered service as the PW-1 in 1916. A total of 126 were built and the plane remained in front-line service until 1924 and served as a trainer until 1928.

Specifications (Gallaudet PW-1E):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.4 meters
Wingspan: 8.6 meters
Height: 2.7 meters
Wing area: 24.2 m^2
Empty weight: 660 kg
Gross weight: 910 kg
Wing loading: 37.5 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 205 hp Hall-Scott A-6 water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 102 knots
Range: 250 nm
Ceiling: 4,000 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns

Gallaudet Model 15:
[ img ]

Entering service only eight months after the PW-1, the Gallaudet Model 15 was a modified version of the earlier fighter. Slightly larger and heavier than its predecessor, the new PW-4 was the first from the company to not use a Hall-Scott engine, instead mounting a powerful Mayfield V-8, improving speed, range, rate of climb, and ceiling over its principle rival – the Blackwell PW-2. Despite this, the PW-2 remained the USAAS’s primary fighter for its superb maneuverability. Additionally, the PW-4 was prone to overheating due to its streamlined – albeit restricted – cowling which limited airflow to its internal radiator. Several variants were designed in an attempt to correct this issue but it remained a concern for the remainder of the aircraft’s time in service, which was brief like all first generation US fighters. A total of 160 PW-4’s were built – most of which were the definitive PW-4D. All were withdrawn from service by early 1925.

Specifications (Gallaudet PW-4D):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.5 meters
Wingspan: 9.3 meters
Height: 2.8 meters
Wing area: 21.8 m^2
Empty weight: 710 kg
Gross weight: 970 kg
Wing loading: 44.4 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 220 hp Mayfield VA200 water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 108 knots
Range: 325 nm
Ceiling: 5,700 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns

Keller Model K-2:
[ img ]

Based on the Model K-1 which did not enter service, Keller Aircraft Company’s Model K-2 was intended to replace the Aeromarine 10 in US Navy service. A twin float tractor biplane, the K-2 was initially quite successful, helping to establish viable coastal patrols alongside the Aeromarine 10 and soon after, the larger, longer-ranged, Aeromarine 14. With the introduction of the Ellison E.3 in 1918 however, the K-2, designated as the Keller O2K (the prototype Model K-1 designated as OK), was quickly relegated to second-line duties. A total of 52 O2K’s were built – all were retired by the beginning of the War of the Americas.

Specifications (Keller O2K-2):
Crew: 2
Length: 9.3 meters
Wingspan: 16.1 meters
Height: 3.3 meters
Wing area: 45.6 m^2
Empty weight: 960 kg
Gross weight: 1,230 kg
Wing loading: 27.0 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 150 hp Hall-Scott A-4E water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 68 knots
Range: 200 nm
Ceiling: 2,000 meters
Armament: normally none, although some aircraft were equipped with one 0.30 caliber machine gun in a flexible mount in the observer’s cockpit

More to come!

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: September 12th, 2019, 10:55 pm
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Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
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Greetings!

Loening Model B:
[ img ]

Military historians and aviation buffs continue to debate to this day which first generation US fighter was the best overall, but few would argue that the Loening PW-3 didn’t belong on the short list. Known as the Model B in Loening records, the fighter entered service in 1917 and proved immediately successful, popular with its pilots for its rugged construction, speed and superb (for its day) rate of climb and ability to handle severely steep dives. A total of 172 Loening PW-3’s were built in all and unsurprisingly, given its abilities, remained in service as a fighter longer than any of its contemporaries – staying in front-line service with the US Army Air Corps (the USAAS’s successor beginning in 1922) until the summer of 1926. It was also one of the few US aircraft to fight on both sides of the War of the Americas after a number of PW-3’s were captured early in the war. Given to the Confederate States Air Corps (CSAC) as evaluation aircraft, many of their features were later incorporated into production models. After the tide of the war had turned against the Confederacy by the beginning of 1926, they were rearmed and sent into combat where they still performed adequately against older US fighters and unescorted bombers – none survived the war, however.

Specifications (Loening PW-3E):
Crew: 1
Length: 7.1 meters
Wingspan: 9.4 meters
Height: 3.0 meters
Wing area: 24.1 m^2
Empty weight: 690 kg
Gross weight: 980 kg
Wing loading: 40.7 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 230 hp Mayfield VA210 water-cooled SOHC V-8
Maximum speed: 115 knots
Range: 300 nm
Ceiling: 6,800 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns, 50 kg of bombs (external)

Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) NP-4:
[ img ]

Although the realization that the requirements for US Naval aircraft would be unique to that environment came early, it was not until 1916 that the conservative Secretary of the Navy Harrison Davies established a separate bureau to address this. The Navy Aviation Bureau (NAB) in turn established a factory in Philadelphia specifically to build designs produced by the NAB. The first successful effort was the NP-4, which entered service in 1918. A large four-engine patrol seaplane, the NP-4 was very conservative in design compared to its contemporaries such as the Aeromarine 14 but did have a two-man cockpit which the earlier plane lacked as well as the longest range of any patrol aircraft the US processed at the time – over twelve hundred nautical miles. Re-designated as the NAF PF in 1919, fourteen of the planes were built in all. Although deemed successful, the PF proved somewhat temperamental to fly – particularly in rough weather – with three lost to accidents and one lost at sea in a failed attempt to cross the Atlantic in 1920. Rapidly rendered obsolete, the surviving aircraft were withdrawn from service shortly after the outbreak of the War of the Americas in 1923.

Specifications (NAF PF-1):
Crew: 5
Length: 18.7 meters
Wingspan: 34.2 meters
Height: 6.7 meters
Wing area: 204.1 m^2
Empty weight: 6,530 kg
Gross weight: 11,430 kg
Wing loading: 56.0 kg/m^2
Engines: 4 x 400 hp Yarbrough B12B water-cooled DOHC V-12
Maximum speed: 82 knots
Range: 1,250 nm
Ceiling: 1,400 meters
Armament: 4 x 0.30 caliber machine guns in two twin-mounts in the bow and rear cupolas

Nolan-Avery NA.3:
[ img ]

Founded in 1916 by Stewart Nolan and Nelson Avery, Nolan-Avery Aircraft Company’s first sale to the USAAS was their NA.3 – which entered service as the NBL (Night Bomber, Long-range)-1 in 1917. The largest and heaviest US aircraft at the time, the NBL-1 was otherwise a conventional biplane heavy bomber design. The first production US four-engine type, the plane’s size and weight pushed aviation technology to the limit and in many respects resulted in a less than ideal aircraft. Powered by four Yarbrough V-12’s mounted in tractor/pusher type nacelles, the NBL-1 was a stable bombing platform with decent range, but was slow to climb and maneuvered – in the words of one pilot “like a hippo swimming through molasses”. Forty-two aircraft were initially ordered by the USAAS but after the first ten aircraft had entered service the order was reduced to thirty while Nolan-Avery went through several re-designs in an effort to improve the plane’s performance to no avail. Despite this, the NBL-1 remained in service a long time, re-designated again in 1922 as the Nolan-Avery HB (Heavy Bomber)-2 before finally being retired in 1928.

Specifications (Nolan-Avery HB-2A):
Crew: 8
Length: 20.1 meters
Wingspan: 39.6 meters
Height: 7.2 meters
Wing area: 267.8 m^2
Empty weight: 8,240 kg
Gross weight: 14,420 kg
Wing loading: 53.8 kg/m^2
Engines: 4 x 375 hp Yarbrough B12A water-cooled DOHC V-12
Maximum speed: 83 knots
Range: 1,130 nm
Ceiling: 3,350 meters
Armament: 6 x 0.30 caliber machine guns in three twin-mounts, 3,500 kg of bombs (internal)

Serrano S.1:
[ img ]

Serrano Aeronautics Corporation’s first successful design, the S.1 entered service as the OA (observation, air-cooled)-1 late in 1916. A light-weight, fast, single-seat scout, the OA-1 was the most produced aircraft of its time – 298 were in service by 1918 and although not the first US design to be exported, became the most widely exported, with aircraft entering service in Mexico (64), Peru (32), and Argentina (44). The scout also saw considerable service outside the US in the Caribbean and Hawaii, as well as in protectorate deployments in Central America where its short range became something of a liability. Re-designated as the Serrano O-3 in 1922, the aircraft was retired in March of 1924 after proving vulnerable to Confederate fighters.

Specifications (Serrano O-3C):
Crew: 1
Length: 6.3 meters
Wingspan: 7.9 meters
Height: 2.4 meters
Wing area: 15.3 m^2
Empty weight: 460 kg
Gross weight: 540 kg
Wing loading: 35.2 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 160 hp Hall-Scott RA-1C air-cooled OHV 9-cylinder rotary
Maximum speed: 110 knots
Range: 200 nm
Ceiling: 5,300 meters
Armament: 1-2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns

Thomas-Morse P-4C:
[ img ]

Introduced as the Thomas-Morse PA-1 in 1918, the P-4C was not considered an outstanding aircraft in most respects, although it did see the second longest period of service of any first generation US fighter – albeit as a ground-attack aircraft – before finally being withdrawn from service in 1930. Powered by a variant of the Lawrance L-1 radial engine, the plane had good handling characteristics and a decent maximum ceiling but was otherwise out-classed by its contemporaries – primarily the Blackwell PW-2 and Loening PW-3. After the outbreak of the War of the Americas however, some of the planes operating on the front line were field-adapted to carry up to 75 kg of bombs. Although performance at high altitudes suffered, the PA-1 maintained its decent maneuverability at low altitudes which made it ideal for the ground-attack role. As a result, these modifications were retrofit to all PA-1’s. The plane would serve in its new role throughout the remainder of the war but many were lost – only 23 of the original 80 built were still flyable by the time of the armistice in 1927. After the war, the PA-1 remained in limited use – primarily as a trainer – for the next four years before being withdrawn from service.

Specifications (Thomas-Morse PA-1B):
Crew: 1
Length: 6.7 meters
Wingspan: 8.9 meters
Height: 2.7 meters
Wing area: 23.9 m^2
Empty weight: 480 kg
Gross weight: 660 kg
Wing loading: 27.6 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 110 hp Lawrance N-1 air-cooled OHV 7-cylinder radial
Maximum speed: 105 knots
Range: 200 nm
Ceiling: 4,600 meters
Armament: 2 x 0.30 caliber machine guns, 75 kg of bombs (external)

Wittemann-Lewis Model 4:
[ img ]

The most advanced bomber in the US inventory at the time, the Wittemann-Lewis Model 4 entered service with the USAAS as the NBL-2 in 1918. Featuring an enclosed cockpit, fully internal control cables, and powered by a pair of Mayfield W-12’s, the NBL-2 was also highly maneuverable for a bomber making it popular with its pilots – particularly in the early days of the War of the Americas when escort fighters were in short supply. An initial order of sixty was followed by additional orders from the USAAS – in the end 181 were built. After the formation of the US Army Air Corps in 1922 four squadrons of the re-designated MB-3 were deployed overseas; based in Hispaniola, Hawaii, Alaska, and Guam (shipped by sea and assembled there). After the outbreak of war, MB-3’s spearheaded the first US bombing campaigns – where they struck industrial targets throughout the Confederacy. Once more advanced CSAC fighters and heavier ground defenses became available; however, losses began to mount, though when escorted, the MB-3 remained a viable asset for the remainder of the war. Deemed functionally obsolete at the armistice, surviving aircraft were retired by the end of 1927.

Specifications (Wittemann-Lewis MB-3D):
Crew: 4
Length: 15.5 meters
Wingspan: 24.3 meters
Height: 5.6 meters
Wing area: 145.1 m^2
Empty weight: 3,770 kg
Gross weight: 5,780 kg
Wing loading: 39.8 kg/m^2
Engines: 2 x 420 hp Mayfield WA400 water-cooled DOHC W-12
Maximum speed: 87 knots
Range: 800 nm
Ceiling: 2,100 meters
Armament: 4 x 0.30 caliber machine guns in two twin-mounts, 1,200 kg of bombs (internal)

Next: The Confederates play catch up.

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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Miath
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: September 14th, 2019, 5:02 pm
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Joined: May 7th, 2018, 5:44 pm
Ou, these are pretty.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: War of the Americas AU: AircraftPosted: September 19th, 2019, 12:59 am
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Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Keyes KS-A:
[ img ]

The first powered heavier than air flight in the Confederacy was carried out in the summer of 1911 by a mechanical engineer and glider enthusiast named Horace Keyes from Arizona. His Type I was followed by more advanced models incorporating some features of aircraft produced by Vickers Limited in the UK. Despite the cooling of relations between the CSA and Great Britain following the 1910 Lake Tahoe Summit, Keyes remained friends with several of Vickers’ designers. With the deployment of the Gallaudet Model 5-2 in 1912 by the US, Keyes was approached by the CS Army to develop a counter to the new threat from the US. Keyes developed the type KS for the Army’s new Aviation division and the design was accepted in 1914. Similar in overall design to the Vickers F.B.5 then under development, the KS-A production model was slightly larger and faster than its English cousin but proved inferior to the plane it was designed to counter – the Gallaudet Model 5-2 – and completely outclassed by its successor the Model 9. Nevertheless, 36 of the “pursuits” were built. Obsolete even before entering service, the KS-A still remained in front-line service until 1922 and was re-designated as the Ks.1 after the establishment of the Confederate States Air Corps (CSAC) in 1918

Specifications (Keyes Ks.1A):
Crew: 2
Length: 8.7 meters
Wingspan: 11.7 meters
Height: 3.5 meters
Wing area: 37.3 m^2
Empty weight: 580 kg
Gross weight: 980 kg
Wing loading: 26.3 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 110 hp RGN Series I-B air-cooled OHV 9-cylinder rotary
Maximum speed: 64 knots
Range: 220 nm
Ceiling: 2,700 meters
Armament: 1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun in a flexible mount in observer’s cockpit

Jacobsen Model C:
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During their decades-long rivalry with the US Navy, the Confederacy was often forced to innovate in an effort to counter the US’s numerical superiority and introduced a number of advanced warships to North America. When aircraft were developed as military assets after the turn of the 20th Century, however, the CSA inexplicably fell behind. Many early warplane designs were obsolete before they entered service and the Jacobsen Model C was no exception. Designed as a scout for the CS Navy, the plane was a conservatively designed single-float biplane introduced in 1915. Although superior in performance over its contemporary – the USN’s Aeromarine PA – it was completely inferior to the powerful P2A introduced a year later. Only 24 were built and it was quickly replaced in frontline service by the Washburn Wn.6 patrol seaplane introduced in 1918. Re-designated as the Jacobsen Jn.3 the same year, the plane was retired late in 1920.

Specifications (Jacobsen Jn.3B):
Crew: 2
Length: 12.6 meters
Wingspan: 18.0 meters
Height: 4.4 meters
Wing area: 59.8 m^2
Empty weight: 1,600 kg
Gross weight: 2,330 kg
Wing loading: 39.0 kg/m^2
Engines: 1 x 260 hp RGN Series III-C water-cooled SOHC V-12
Maximum speed: 77 knots
Range: 260 nm
Ceiling: 2,000 meters
Armament: 1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun, 50 kg of bombs (external)

Next: More Confederate aircraft (after a break to work on other projects)

Comments always welcome!

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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